Skip to main content jump down to

ABC Support is an integrated, supplemental intervention for early elementary students that merges a combined focus on developing reading fluency and strengthening positive behaviors (i.e., engagement and compliance).

ABC Support is intended to supplement, but not replace, high-quality universal academic instruction and behavior support for students who are at risk for reading and behavior challenges.

A distinctive feature of ABC Support is the integration of both reading and behavior intervention elements to strengthen effectiveness and maximize efficiency. In developing ABC Support, we reviewed multiple data sources and identified 12 common evidence-based elements across effective academic and behavior interventions. (See ABC Support Manual (PDF) for a description of each element and summary of supporting research.) The implementation of ABC Support is structured to ensure that each element is clearly present within the intervention procedures to support reading and behavior simultaneously.


ABC Support may be implemented in a one-on-one format with individual students, or as a small-group intervention with 2-3 students. Although the procedures vary slightly between individual versus small-group implementation, the same evidence-based intervention elements are incorporated into both individual and small-group formats. To date, ABC Support has been shown to improve reading fluency and classroom learning-related behaviors when implemented in a one-on-one format. Interventionists who implement ABC Support with small groups of students are likely to achieve similar benefits.

ABC Support may be implemented by a variety of school personnel, including teachers, reading specialists, interventionists, special educators, student support professionals, etc. The recommended length for the intervention period is 6-8 consecutive weeks, with three 20-minute intervention sessions per week. Each intervention session incorporates the same standard sequence of intervention steps.


The materials needed to implement ABC Support can be accessed by downloading the ABC Support Manual (PDF) and the Implementation Materials Handbook (PDF) for free from this website. The manual includes step-by-step, semi-scripted directions for conducting the intervention sessions with individual students or with small groups. The handbook includes single copies of all materials and tools necessary for implementation (e.g., student passages, reading and behavior graphs, reward chart, etc.) that may be reproduced. Although permission to reprint the manual or handbook is not necessary, when referencing or using any portion of either publication, please use the appropriate citation. Additional materials needed for implementation include a stopwatch, stickers, pen/pencil, binders for manuals and materials (optional), and laminating or plastic sheets with black erasable marker (optional).